Hermephrodite sex dating
The rectal epithelial cell Y produces the support cells (and neurons) of the PCS, which lies posterior to the hook. Divisions are anterior-posterior unless otherwise indicated. bm, body muscle; cc, coelomocyte; um1, type 1 uterine muscle; um2, type 2 uterine muscle; vm1 type 1 vulval muscle; vm2, type 2 vulval muscle. Aspects of many of these cell fate decisions are covered in more detail in other chapters, which will be referred to where appropriate. Green nuclei are ectodermal, red nuclei are mesodermal. The body plan must influence the fates of individual cells, however the mechanisms by which this occurs are not yet clear. POP-1 is asymmetrically distributed to anterior-posterior sister cells in many divisions during development (Herman, 2002; Herman and Wu, 2004; Lin et al., 1998).
In hermaphrodites, P cells in the mid-body make the vulval epithelium. Each of these structures is generated by sex-specific cell lineages. Individual nuclei of intestine are not shown, brown indicates endoderm. At most divisions, the nucleus of the anterior daughter has a higher level of POP-1 than does the posterior daughter.
Thus to understand cell fate specification in hermaphrodites, one must consider how the body plan, which is specified during embryogenesis, influences the fates individual cells.
One possible mechanism may involve the asymmetric distribution of POP-1/Tcf, the solegenes.
Furthermore, the gonads of each sex have different structures and functions.
Finally, sexually dimorphic neurons and muscles develop in each sex to control the movements of these mating structures. Major differences between the sexes are found in the posterior and the ventral body.
In fact, about 650 cells seem to be the same in both sexes, out of a total of 959 somatic nuclei in hermaphrodites, and 1031 somatic nuclei in males.
However, the HSN and CEM neurons are notable exceptions.There are many sex-specific differences between males and hermaphrodites.